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Glossary of Battery Terms

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل

Glossary of Battery Terms

مُساهمة  نائل عبدالرحمن العلي في الإثنين 20 أغسطس 2012 - 5:41

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

أقدم لكم معاني المصطلحات الخاصة بالبطاريات (إنجليزي/إنجليزي) مرتبه أبجدياً ليسهل على الجميع فهم معاني تلك المصطلحات, ويمكن تحميلها مباشرة عن طريق الرابط التالي

4shared.com/office/fBNrzCVS/Glossary_of_Battery_Terms.html?

Absorption
The taking up or retention of one material by another by chemical or

molecular action.

Alkaline
A primary battery (non-rechargeable) often used in electronics applications

requiring heavy currents for long periods of time (i.e.: cd players, radios,

etc.). Alkaline batteries can deliver 50-100% more total energy than

conventional Carbon/Zinc batteries of the same size, hence their popularity

in consumer applications.

Alloy
A mixture of several other metals or a metal and a non-metal.

Ambient Temperature
The average temperature of the surroundings.

Ampere-Hour Capacity
The quantity of electricity measured in ampere-hours (Ah) that may be

delivered by a cell or battery under specified conditions.

Anode
The electrode in an electrochemical cell where oxidation takes place.

During discharge, the negative electrode of the cell is the anode. During

charge, the positive electrode is the anode.

Battery Pack
Two or more electrochemical cells electrically interconnected in an

appropriate series/parallel arrangement to provide the required operating

voltage and current levels. Under common usage, the term "battery" is often

also applied to a single cell.

C-Rate
(also see Hourly Rate)
Discharge or charge current, in amperes, expressed in multiples of the rated

capacity. For example, C/10 discharge current for a battery rated at 1.5 Ah

is: 1.5 AH/I 0 = 150 mA (A cell's capacity is not the same at all discharge

rates and usually increases with decreasing rate.)

Capacity
The total number of ampere-hours or watt-hours that can be withdrawn

from a fully charged cell or battery under specified conditions of discharge.

Capacity Offset
A correction factor applied to the rating of a battery if discharged under

different C-rates from the one rated.

Capacity Retention (or Charge Retention)
The fraction of the fall capacity available from a battery under specified

conditions of discharge after it has been stored for a period of time

Carbon/Zinc
A primary battery (non-rechargeable) commonly used in low drain

consumer applications (i.e.: clocks, calculators, garage door openers, etc.).

Available in the same sizes as the Alkaline and Manganese Dioxide. The

Carbon/Zinc is one of the most widely used dry primary batteries because of

its low cost and reliable performance.

Cathode
The electrode in an electrochemical cell where reduction takes place.

During discharge, the positive electrode of the cell is the cathode. During

charge in a rechargeable battery, the negative electrode is the cathode.

Cell
The basic electrochemical unit used to generate or store electrical energy.

Cell Mismatch
Cells within a battery pack that contain different capacity and voltage levels.

Cell Reversal
The stronger cells of a battery (several cells connected in series) impose a

voltage of reverse polarity across a weaker cell during a deep discharge.

Charge
The conversion of electrical energy, provided in the form of electrical

current from an external source, to restore the chemical energy in a cell or

battery.

Charge Control
Technique for effectively terminating the charging of a rechargeable

battery.

Closed-circuit Voltage(CCV)
The potential or voltage of a battery when it is discharging or charging.

Condition
A process that utilizes a series of heavy discharges and recharges on a

battery to assure optimum performance.

Constant Current
A battery discharge regime whereby the current drawn during the discharge

Discharge remains constant.

Constant Power
A battery discharge regime whereby the current during the discharge

increases as the battery voltage decreases.

Constant Resistance
A battery discharge regime whereby the resistance of the equipment load

remains constant throughout discharge.

Current Collector
An inert structure of high electrical conductivity used to conduct current

from or to an electrode during discharge or charge.

Current Density
The current per unit active area of the surface of an electrode.

Current Drain
The current withdrawn from a battery during discharge.

Current Limiting Chargers
A charger that keeps the charge current constant during the charge process

but allows the voltage to Fluctuate (typically used on NiCd and NiMh

chargers).

Cutoff Voltage
The battery voltage at which the discharge is terminated. The cutoff voltage

is specified by the battery manufacturer and is generally a function of

discharge rate.

Cycle
A sequence where a charged battery is discharged and recharged.

Cycle Life
The number of cycles under specified conditions that are available from a

secondary battery before it fails to meet specified criteria as to performance.

Cylindrical Cell
The positive and negative plates are rolled up and placed into a cylindrical

container (as opposed to stacking the plates in a prismatic cell design).

Depth of Discharge
The ratio of the quantity of electricity (usually in ampere-hours) removed

from a battery to its rated capacity.

Desorption
The opposite of absorption, whereby the material retained by a medium or

another material is released.

Direct Current
Electrical current that flows in one direction only. Batteries produce direct

current as the current flows from a negative to a positive source.

Discharge
The conversion of the chemical energy of a battery into electrical energy,

and the withdrawal of the electrical energy into a load.

Discharge Rate
The rate, usually expressed in amperes, at which electrical current is taken

from the battery.

Drain
The current withdrawn from a battery during discharge.

Dry Cell
A cell with immobilized electrolyte. The term "dry cell" is often used to

describe the Leclanche cell.

Dumb Battery
Straight battery pack without internal circuits enabling communication

between the battery and the user.

Duty Cycle
The operating regime of a battery including factors such as charge and

discharge rates, depth of discharge, cycle duration, and length of time in the

standby mode.

E-Rate
Discharge or charge power, in watts, expressed as a multiple of the rated

capacity of a cell or battery that is expressed in watt-hours. For example, the

E/10 rate for a cell or battery rated at 17.3 watt-hours is 1.73 watts. (This is

similar to the method for calculating C-Rate.)

Electric Current
The movement of electrons along a conductor.

Electrochemical Equivalent
Weight of a substance that is deposited at an electrode when the quantity of

electricity which is passed is one coulomb

Electrode
The site, area or location at which electrochemical processes take place.

Electrolyte
The medium which provides the ion transport mechanism between the

positive and negative electrodes of a cell.

Electron
Negatively charged particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom.

End Voltage Cutoff
The prescribed voltage at which the discharge (or charge, if end-of-charge

voltage) of a battery may be considered complete.

Energy
The output capability of a cell or battery, usually expressed in watt-hours.

Energy Density
The ratio of the energy available from a battery to its volume (Wh/L) or

weight (Wh/kg).

Fast Charge
Typical fast charge time for a NiCd is 1 to 3 hours. The fast-charger detects

the state of charge and switches to trickle charge when full-charge is

reached.

Float
The use of batteries in which they are charged by an application to be ready

for use if the primary power to the application fails. Also called standby or

backup.

Float Charge
Similar to trickle charge. Compensates for the self-discharge on a SLA

battery

Forced Discharge
Discharging a cell in a battery, by the other cells or an external power

source, below zero volts into voltage reversal.

Fuse
Device used for cutting off an electrical current in the event of an abusive

condition.

Gassing
The evolution of gas from one or more of the electrodes in a cell. Gassing

commonly results from local action (self-discharge) or from the electrolysis

of water in the electrolyte during charging.

Generator
A device that produces an electric current through magnetism.

Gravimetric Energy
The ratio of the energy output of a cell or battery to its weight (Wh/kg). This

term is used interchangeably with specific energy.

Ground
To connect to the earth or some conductor which takes the place of the

earth.

Hertz (Hz)
The standard unit of frequency. A frequency of one complete cycle per

second is a frequency of one hertz.

Hourly Rate
A discharge rate, in amperes, of a battery which will deliver the specified

hours of service to a given cutoff voltage.

Hydrometer
A device used to measure the specific gravity of the electrolyte in a cell.

Impedance
Impedance Intermittent Test
Used in terms of the battery's internal resistance a test during which a

battery is subjected to alternate periods of discharge and rest according to a

specified discharge regime.

Internal Impedance
The opposition exhibited by a circuit element (cell or battery) to the flow of

an alternating current (a/c.) of a particular frequency as a result of resistance,

induction and capacitance.

Internal Resistance (IR)
The opposition exhibited by a circuit element to the flow of direct current

(D.C.). In a cell, the internal resistance is the sum of the ionic and electronic

resistances of the cell components.

IR Drop
A voltage drop associated with the electrical resistance (R) of a battery or

current flow (I). The voltage drop is the product of the current (in amperes)

and the resistance (in ohms).

Limiting Current
The maximum current drain under which the particular battery will

perform adequately under a continuous drain. The rate is based on whatever

drain rate reduces the running voltage to 1.1 volts.

Lithium Ion (Li Ion)
One of the newer rechargeable battery technologies, Li Ion batteries can

deliver 40% more capacity than comparably sized NiCd batteries and are

one of the lightest rechargeable batteries available today. Li Ion batteries are

the batteries of choice in notebook computers, wireless telephones and

many camcorder models. They are also one of the more expensive

rechargeable technologies.

Lead Acid
Still the most popular battery used today its main application is for the

automobile industry, although it has a growing number of other

applications. Its advantages are low cost, high voltage per cell and good

capacity life. Disadvantages are poor low temperature characteristics, it is

relatively heavy, and it cannot be left in a discharged state for too long

without being damaged. Related Batteries: Absorbent Glass Matt (AGM)

Gel/Gel Cell Sealed Lead Acid

Lithium
A primary battery (non-rechargeable) that is quickly entering mainstream

electronic designs, particularly in consumer, portable equipment and non-

volatile memory back up applications where small size, long life and low

cost are the primary requirements. Lithium batteries have superior cold

temperature performance and a shelf life of 5-10 years.

Lithium Ion (Li Ion)
One of the newer rechargeable battery technologies, Li Ion batteries can

deliver 40% more capacity than comparably sized NiCd batteries and are

one of the lightest rechargeable batteries available today. Li Ion batteries are

the batteries of choice in notebook computer, wireless telephones and many

camcorder models. They are also one of the more expensive rechargeable

technologies.

Load Current
The discharge current provided by a battery, or drawn by a battery powered

device.

Manganese Dioxide
A primary battery (non-rechargeable) similar to that of the alkaline battery

though not as strong in total energy. Available in the same size as Alkaline

and Carbon/Zinc ("AA", "AAA", "C","D", 9volt) the Manganese Dioxide

chemistry is noted for its ability to retain its charge while being stored at

high temperatures and operates well at temperatures as low as -40°C with

little loss of capacity.

Memory Effect
A phenomenon in which a cell or battery operated in successive cycles to the

same, but less than full, depth of discharge temporarily loses the rest of its

capacity at normal voltage levels.

Metal Hydride
An intermetallic compound or alloy in which hydrogen has been absorbed-,

also, the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride battery.

Midpoint Voltage
The voltage of a battery midway in the discharge between the start of the

discharge and the end voltage.

Milliamps
Refers to battery capacity. A 1/1000th of an amp, e.g.: 1.0Ah = 1000mAh.

Negative
A terminal or electrode which has an excess of electrons.

Nickel Cadmium
One of the most proven and historically most widely used rechargeable

batteries. Very dependable and "robust" but contain cadmium and have

relatively low capacity when compared to other rechargeable systems. Very

good high rate discharge capabilities make them very popular in high drain

applications such as power tools.

Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMh)
Interchangeable with most NiCd batteries, nickel metal hydride (NiMh)

batteries generally deliver 10-25% greater capacity than NiCds and are

environmentally more friendly than NiCds since they do not contain

cadmium. Used in many wireless phone and camcorders.

Nominal Voltage
The characteristic operating voltage or rated voltage of a battery.

Ohm
A measure of resistance that causes one volt to produce a current of one

ampere.

Open-Circuit Voltage
The difference in potential between the terminals of a cell when the circuit is

open (no-load condition).


Overcharge
The forcing of current through a cell after all the active material has been

converted to the charged state, that is, continued charging after reaching

100 percent state-of-charge.

Overdischarge
The process of discharging a cell or battery beyond its cutoff voltage and

possibly into voltage reversal.

Parallel
Term used to describe the interconnection of cells or batteries in which all

the like terminals are connected together. Results in increased capacity.

Passivation
The phenomenon by which a metal, although in conditions of

thermodynamic instability, remains indefinitely unattacked because of

modified or altered surface conditions.

Polarity
In electricity, the condition of being positive or negative.

Polarization
The lowering of the potential of a cell or electrode from its equilibrium

value caused by the passage of an electric current.

Positive
A terminal or electrode which has a shortage of electrons.

Positive Temperature
A thermally reactive device which becomes highly resistive at a specific

Coefficient (PTC) temperature or current.

Primary Battery
A battery which is not intended to be recharged and is discarded when the

battery has delivered all of its electrical energy.

Prismatic Cell
The positive and negative plates are stacked rather than rolled as done in a

cylindrical cell.

Pulse Current
A periodic current drain of higher than normal drain rates.

Rapid Charge
A charge time that is between slow charge and fast charge (typically 3 to 6

hours for a NiCd).

Rated Capacity
The number of ampere-hours a battery can deliver under specific

conditions (e.g., rate of discharge, end voltage, temperature); usually

specified by the battery manufacturer.

Rechargeable battery
A galvanic battery which, after discharge, may be restored to the fully

charged state by the passage of an electrical current through the cell in the

opposite direction to that of discharge.

Recondition
One or more deep discharge cycles below 1.0 volt/cell at a very low,

controlled current. Recondition helps to revert large crystals to small

desirable sized, often restoring the battery to it's full capacity.

Resistance
The degree to which the flow of electrons is opposed by the material the

electrons must pass through. Resistance is expressed in OHMS.

Reversal
The changing of the normal polarity of a battery due to Overdischarge.

Safety Vent
A venting mechanism designed into a cell which activates under specific

conditions of abuse to relieve internal pressure.

Secondary Battery
A battery that can be recharged and reused many times.

Secure Waste Landfill
A landfill designed for disposal of normal household trash but which meets

government standards designed to protect the environment.

Self-Discharge
The loss of useful capacity of a battery on storage due to internal chemical

action (local action).

Separator
An ionic permeable electronically non-conductive spacer or material which

prevents electronic contact between electrodes of opposite polarity in the

same cell.

Series
The interconnection of cells in such a manner that the positive terminal of

the first is connected to the negative terminal of the second, and so on,

resulting in increased voltage.

Service Life
The period of useful life of a battery before a predetermined end-point

voltage is reached.

Shelf Life
The duration of storage under specified conditions at the end of which the

battery still retains the ability to give a specified performance.

Short Circuit
An unwanted electrical connection between a negative and positive source.

Short circuits can damage the battery and equipment and can cause sparks

or fire.

Short-circuit Current
The initial value of the current obtained from a battery in a circuit of

negligible resistance.

Silver/Oxide
A primary battery (non-rechargeable) it is a major contribution to miniature

power sources, and is well suited for hearing aids, instruments, photoelectric

exposure devices and electronic watches. These cells are primarily made in

the smaller “button” sizes.

Slow Charge
Typically an over-night charge lasting abut 14 hours at a charge current of

0.1C. Battery does not require instant removal when fully charged.

Smart Battery
Battery with internal circuit enabling some communication between the

battery and the user. Some batteries feature a capacity indicator only, others

offer an external bus to interface with the equipment the battery power and

the intelligent charger.

Soft Cell
A cell whose voltage rises above its defined boundaries during charging.

This voltage rise may be caused by high cell impedance as a result of

prolonged battery storage, very cold battery temperature or lack of

electrolyte.

Specific Energy
The ratio of the energy output of a cell or battery to its weight (Wh/kg). This

term is used interchangeably with gravimetric energy density.

Specific Gravity
The weight of the sulfuric acid electrolyte compared to water.

Spiral Wound
An electrode structure of high surface area created by winding the

electrodes and separator into a spiral-wound jelly-roll configuration.

Standby
The use of batteries in which they are charged by an application to be ready

for use if the primary power to the application fails. Also called float or

backup.

State of Charge
The capacity remaining in a battery.

Sulfation
Growth of lead sulfate crystals in Lead-Acid batteries which inhibits current

flow. Sulfation is caused by storage at low state of charge.

Temperature Cutoff
A protective or safety device (e.g., thermostat, PTC, etc.) which senses

temperature in a battery and opens or cuts off the electrical circuit if the

specified temperature is exceeded, thus preventing a further rise in

temperature due to the charge or discharge of a battery.

Terminal
A device at the end of a cell or wire for making a connection to an adjoining

cell or wire.

Thermistor
A temperature sensitive resistor usually made from specially processed

oxides that are used to sense end of charge temperature rises and terminates

high rate charging.

Thermostat
A temperature sensitive switch.

Top-Up Charge
A low rate charge following the main charge, designed to ensure maximum

capacity.

Trickle Charge
A charge at a low rate, balancing losses through local action and/or periodic

discharge, to maintain a cell or battery in a fully charged condition.

Voltage
A unit of measuring electrical pressure, all batteries are rated in volts DC

(Direct Current).

Voltage Depression
An abnormal drop in voltage below expected values during the discharge of

a battery.

Voltage Delay
Time delay for a battery to deliver the required operating voltage after it is

placed under load.

Voltage-Keyed
A system that incorporates a mechanical identifier on batteries and devices

to ensure only batteries of the correct voltage are connected to the device.

Voltage Regulator
A device that regulates the output of a generator or alternator by controlling

the current and voltage.

Voltage Reversal
The changing of the normal polarity of a battery due to overdischarge.

Volumetric Energy Density
The ratio of the energy output of a cell or battery to its volume (Wh/L).

Wall-less Design
A battery design where the structural support for the cells is formed by an

open plastic framework.

Watts
A measurement of energy, arrived at by multiplying the voltage by the

amperage.

Watt Hours
A common measurement of energy produced in a given amount of time,

arrived at by multiplying the voltage by the amp hours.

Zinc/Air
A primary battery (non-rechargeable) that was commonly used for

applications such as watches and hearing aids. In relation to their physical

size, Zinc/Air batteries store more energy per unit of weight (in terms of 220

W h/kg) than any other primary type.



قال تعالى: " فَنَادَىٰ فِي الظُّلُمَاتِ أَن لَّا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا أَنتَ سُبْحَانَكَ إِنِّي كُنتُ مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿87﴾ فَاسْتَجَبْنَا لَهُ وَنَجَّيْنَاهُ مِنَ الْغَمِّ ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُنجِي الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (88) " سورة الأنبياء.










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نائل عبدالرحمن العلي
مدير الموقع
مدير الموقع

عدد المساهمات : 645
النقاط : 6022
الرتبه : 8
تاريخ التسجيل : 26/06/2009

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: Glossary of Battery Terms

مُساهمة  ساهر الليل في الأربعاء 22 أغسطس 2012 - 2:19

شكرا جزيلا على هذه المعلومات القيمة

thaaaaaaanks

ساهر الليل

عدد المساهمات : 2
النقاط : 1893
الرتبه : 10
تاريخ التسجيل : 22/08/2012

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

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